Additional Resources for the Pre-Code Era: Conservative former Postmaster General William H. Directors and Directions, , the unofficial Bible of auteurism. The twenty-six "Be Carefuls" were only cautionary, such as the elimination of the depiction of criminality, excessive brutality, murder and rape, excessive over 3 seconds and lustful kissing, and the depiction of men and women sleeping together in the same bed. Already, "America's Sweetheart" star Mary Pickford's marriage to Douglas Fairbanks on March 28, , after they both divorced spouses to marry each other, was another symbol of the erosion of values in Hollywood. A number of excellent books have been written on the subject of films in Hollywood's pre-Code era before the period of formal censorship began, and thereafter during the studio era, including these selections: The latter was typical of an exploitation film designed to circumvent the Production Code restrictions with its plot that warned against underage marriage.
Many studios have circumvented the system by self-censorship - lowering the rating of proposed films as much as possible by slicing out explicit sex and violence to avoid the dreaded NC rating , in order to bring in larger audiences. Two other notorious death-murder cases caused serious scandal in the s, and then another one in the late s: The short film was challenged by the New York Board of Regents in , after being pressured by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese to revoke the film's license on the grounds that the work was "blasphemous" and "sacrilegious. Although relatively unchanged, various permutations of ratings systems have evolved to the present day. Erotic films, unlike pornography, do not have as their sole purpose the explicit and graphic display of sex and nudity. Scandals Rock the Industry In the early days of Hollywood shortly after the development of film-making as an industry, moralists objected to the amount of nudity, sexuality, criminality and violence portrayed in films. The situation was further complicated by rumors that Taylor was homosexual. A landmark Miracle Supreme Court decision of the early 50s declared that films were protected as 'free speech' by the First Amendment to the Constitution, and most censorship was ruled unconstitutional. Censorship boards were set up in various states and controls began to be imposed, often on a voluntary basis, once moving pictures became widespread and available to mass viewing audiences encouraged by the popularity of nickelodeons, first called "arcade peepshows". Erotica sometimes is explicit, but can often be teasing, intriguing, sylized, unique and imaginative. However, the vast complexity of various local, state and national censorship laws added to the problem of enforcement, i. Francis Hotel during a party landed the popular silent comedian in jail. Explicit foreign imports, such as Roger Vadim's flirtatious, sex-oriented Arbuckle Banished From Film-making Temporarily One of his first acts of Hays in 'cleaning-up' Hollywood, due to pressure from Hollywood's top film executives, was to banish the acquitted actor-comedian Arbuckle from film, at least temporarily, in order to distract the public. The story of their marriage and the husband's death was partially mirrored in A Star is Born , Other 'forbidden' films were usually screened in theatres that came to be known as 'grindhouses' - since they often served as burlesque strip joints. Also, once the theatres were forced to be sold off by the studios due in part to a ruling which forced the separation of the studios from their theatre chains , the owners had more choice in the selection of films, and the burgeoning growth of television brought further competition. We feel a great injustice has been done him. Martin's Press, Sin in Soft Focus: The film lost its license and the film's distributor, Joseph Burstyn, appealed the decision. The third jury - after a six-minute verdict - stated: We wish him success and hope that the American people will take the judgement of twelve men and women that Roscoe Arbuckle is entirely innocent and free from all blame. A number of excellent books have been written on the subject of films in Hollywood's pre-Code era before the period of formal censorship began, and thereafter during the studio era, including these selections: It was part of a longer 69 minute anthology film entitled L'Amore , It. His wife Dorothy Davenport, another Hollywood star, preached that Reid's drug addiction was a disease and not a sign of his moral depravity commonly believed at the time.
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